Theory and Philosophy of Iridology

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Theory and Philosophy of IridologyThe Birth of Iridology

In the pictures on the ancient papyruses in the National museums of Cairo and Alexandria, temples of Luxor, which are several thousands years old, one can see many pictures in which priests investigate the eyes of pharaoh. According to the data of P. Dimkov, E.S. Velkhover, the priests of Ancient Egypt were able not only to make diagnosis of the existing disease, but also to make a prognosis of the future state of patient’s health, to determine the characteristic features of a person, based on the changes in the iris.

Other example can be found from the notes of the Alexander Macedonian’s doctor. The warriors were selected by taking into consideration the state of their irises.

The medical doctor named Ignatz von Peczely (1826-1907) from Egernar, near Budapest, Hungary has proved the basis of the method and proposed his own iris zones projection chart although rather primitive from modern point of view but relatively reliable. The scientist’s biographers give rather interesting legend determined the mission of the future founder of modern iridology.

Ignatz von Peczely (1826-1907)

While studying in the Viennese University and working in the surgery hospital, Peczely started to investigate the patient’s iris changes depending on different diseases. He has found that each part of the body, as well as; each organ corresponding to the determined iris segment. As a result, the first iris chart was developed making him a founder of modern iridology. In 1880 Peczely published a book describing principles of diagnostics using iris. The main attention of his work was the location and form of iridological signs. Later he has published a manual on iris diagnostics where he wrote as epigraph that eyes are not only mirroring of the soul but of the body as well. This work was met by icy silence of contemporaries.

Another important page to iridology history was added by Swedish pastor N. Liljequist. ‘A man can lie but his eyes never lie’ was his answer to those who were interested in the reasons of his interest to the iridology. He has developed more detailed and reliable iridology chart independently from Peczely, which determined the position of digestive tract in ciliary belt and proved that organic defect should be visible in the eyes. The color iris analysis firstly described in his fundamental book on diagnostics on eye (1897) has extended the ability to find toxic and toxic-allergic changes in the organism. The pastor was one of the first who warned that total unorganized vaccination and large doses of drugs can cause many allergic diseases in the future.

In the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, writings and works on Iris markings and their meanings were recorded, mainly by medical practitioners. Many papers on iridology were published at the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th centuries.

B. Jensen (born in 1908) is one of the outstanding persons in modern iridology. He was a Natural medicine doctor, Nutritionist, chiropractor, philosopher and author. His book, The Science and practice of Iridology outline a method which allows determining the patient’s condition without interception to the organs functioning. One of the main advantages of iridodiagnostics is that signs of constitutional peculiarities, genetic defects and structural damages of organism appear on the iris significantly earlier than real dysfunction or pathology appears, i.e. it is possible to make early diagnostics.

Dr. Jensen investigated more than 350,000 patients during fifty years of practice. The iris charts developed by B. Jensen are one of the most used in the world. The approach to the iris structure, its density, amortization, pigment and other properties is original and confirmed by clinical practice. His theory on the rules of iridogenetic inheritance the signs forming and conservation is the basis of modern understanding of iridological prognosis.

According to Dr. Bernard Jensen (USA), the Central Hypotheses of Iridology are:

(1) The iris reveals, through changes in pigment and structure, abnormal conditions of tissue in the human body;

(2) The anterior of the iris reflexly corresponds in the systematic organization of its topography to the major tissue structures the body. For example, each organ, gland and tissue is represented in a specific location in the left or right iris, or both.

*** The documentation in support of these two central hypotheses is established on the work of hundreds of primary health care professionals that have used Iridology successfully as a diagnostic aid with thousands of patients in the past 100 years. The observations and research of iridologist have been published in many books and professional journals. The accuracy and reliability of iris signs as reflex indications of tissue pathology in the body have been confirmed in many thousands of instances by: laboratory tests, X-rays, and other commonly accepted diagnostic approaches.

(3) Organs and tissues on the left half of the body are reflexly represented in the left iris, while those of the right half of the body are represented in the right iris. Organs and tissues lying along the centerline of the body, the sagittal plane, appear in both irides, as do bilateral organs.

*** Again, this hypothesis is based upon the findings and empirical observations of hundreds of Iridologists. The research of Walter Lang proposes a set of neural pathways that would account for the physiological eye changes associated with both disease states and abnormal tissue conditions. Lang indicates that afferent autonomic nerve impulses from the various organs and tissues of the body reach the anterior thalamic nuclei of the diencephalon. It therefore acts as a “file cabinet” or storage area on all anatomical conditions. Lang further suggests that this information is transmitted to the hypothalamus, which functions as a central relay and control station of the brain. Nerve impulses from the hypothalamus follow pathways via the oculomotor nucleus and the Edinger-Westphal nucleus to the muscles, stroma and blood vessels of the irides.

Where they’re assumed to stimulate topographical tissue changes, corresponding to specific organ and tissue changes elsewhere in the body. Lang shows that areas of the iris can be differentiated to correspond to the various organs and tissue by definition that a single iris nerve fiber (over 28,000) controls only 5 to 10 muscle cells as compared to 200 – 300 muscle cells in the extremities. This means that changes reflexed to the iris are highly specific to certain zones. However the neural system organization is the same in all human beings, the same tissue areas of the body will always reflex to the same areas of the irides.

(4) The anterior iris, including the anterior epithelium, the stroma, the muscle layer, the pupillary margin, the autonomic nerve wreath (collarette), and the scleral-iris margin undergo specific changes corresponding to pathological changes in specific organs and tissues in the body.

*** Again, this hypothesis is based upon findings and empirical observations of hundreds of Iridologists. Iridologists have distinguished that the iris changes due to pathological deterioration of body tissue. This shows as a whiteness (acute) in the iris fibers, then an increasing darkness (sub-acute -> chronic -> degenerative) and the depth of iris lesions.

In the past, Iridologists have also stated that they have witnessed changes due to reversal pathology (emergence of healing lines) in the same iris lesions after successful treatment. In many cases these findings are confirmed with other commonly accepted diagnostic procedures. It must be emphasized that the pathological condition must be adequately severe to be classified by the standards of western medicine as the classification standards of Iridology are different.

The various laboratory tests that are being used to determine the presence or absence of disease are not totally efficient in the assessment of subclinical conditions. Acute and sub-acute stages of tissue inflammation can commonly be detected long before other diagnostic methods are capable of finding any health problems with the patient. In a similar manner, when a patient is declared “well” by the standards of Western medicine, Iridology frequently shows a subacute condition persisting in the individual.

(5) Inherent weaknesses, inherent strengths and the degree of nervous system sensitivity are shown in the iris, respectively, by the crypts and separations in the trabeculae; by closely knit trabeculae; and by parallel, curved cramp rings concentric with outer perimeter of the iris, all located in the ciliary zone outside the autonomic nerve wreath.

Iridology Pioneers

Listed here are some remarkable pioneers who have made a great impact to the study & development of Iridology.

  • Pastor Felke of Germany (1856 – 1926)Work published: “The Eye: Diagnosis Based Upon the Principles of Pastor Felke by E. Muller”.
  • Henry Edward Lane, MD (Also known as Dr. H.E. Lahn) – Native of Austria although practiced in a sanitarium in Evanston, Illinois. Work Published: “Iridology: The Diagnosis from the Eye”. Kosmos Publishing Co., 1914
  • Henry Lindlahr, MD of USA. Work Published: “Irisdiagnosis and Other Diagnostic Methods”. Published in 1939 by Lindlahr Publishing Co.
  • Dr. F. W. Collins of Orange County, New Jersey. Work Published: 1918 Two Volumes of work on Iridology including the translation of German Iridologist, Peter Johannes Theil’s book, “The Diagnosis of Disease by Observation of the Eye”. Published in 1905.
  • Dr. J. Haskel Kritzer of USA. Work Published: Book titled “Iridiagnosis” Chicago: J.H. Kritzer, 1924.
  • Dr. John R. Arnold of USA. Work Published: Founder of the World Iridology Fellowship.
  • Dr. V. L. Ferrandiz of Barcelona, Spain. Work Published: Book titled “Iridiagnosis” published in 1970.
  • Dr. Josef Deck of Germany. Europe’s foremost iridologist. Work Published: Book titled “Differentiation of Iris Markings”. Translated by R. Freystuck- Baynham, Ulrike Fuchs, and Hans-Jurgen Fuchs. 2nd ed. Ettingen, Germany: 1982 Book Titled “Principles of Iris Diagnosis”. Translated by R. Freystuck- Baynham, and Hans-Jurgen Fuchs. Ettlingen, Germany 1982.
  • Theodore Kriege of Osnabruck, Germany. Work Published – “Fundamental Basis of Irisdiagnosis” – Translated by A.W. Priest. Essex, England: N. Fowler & Co., Ltd., 1969.
  • Dr. Bernard Jensen of Escondido California, USA. Work Published: Considered the worlds foremost iridologist. Volumous books and research
  • Dr. Donald Bodeen of Poughkeepsie, New York. Work Published: “Visions of Health”, “Understanding Iridology” co-authored with Dr. Bernard Jensen, Avery Publishing Group, 1992.
  • Victor S. Davidson of U.K. Work Published: “Iridiagnosis”. Wellingborough, England: Thorsons Publishers Ltd., 1979.
  • Dorothy Hall of Australia:. Work Published: “How the Eyes Reveal Your Health and Your Personality”. New Canaan, Connecticut, Keats Publishing Inc. 1980.
  • Jim Jenks of Utah, USA. – Several Iridology Publications
  • Niels Liljequist of Rockford Illinois, USA. Work Published: “Diagnosis From the Eye”. Iridology publishing Co., 1916.
  • P. Dimkov, Russia – Several Iridology Publications
  • E.S. Velkhover, Russia – “Father of Russian Iridology”
  • R.G. Wilborn, & James Terrell of USA.- Several Iridology Publications
  • William J. Burns of USA. Work Published: “The Irometer”. 1949
  • John Andrews, MH, Ir, MGNI – Advanced Iridology Research Journal. England
  • Ellen Tart, Ph.D., California – Several Iridology Publications
  • Bill Caradonna, ND, California – Several Iridology Publications
  • John Miles, M.Sc. – USA – Miles Research – Iris Capture Systems, Several research projects
  • Leonard Mehlmauer, ND, USA – Several Iridology Publications
  • Dr. Farida Sharan, MDMA ND MH – Author and lecturer in Iridology
  • Daehoon Kim, Ph.D. Korea & USA – Scientific developer of Iris capture systems and Iris software.
  • Ms. Vartchenko Natalia N. – Russia – Current Iridology Research and Development Specialist.
  • Dr. Makartchuk Iossif E.- Russia – Current Iridology Research and Development Specialist.
  • Mr. Gankine Konstantin A..- Russia – Current Iridology Research and Development Specialist.
  • Harri Wolf, M.Sc. – USA – Several publications and research works.
  • Bondur V. Ph.D. – Russia – Current Iridology Research and Development Specialist.
  • Cutenev  A.  MD – RUSSIA -  Current Iridology Research and Development Specialist.
  • Dr. Daniele Lo Rito. MD – ITALY – Dedicated researcher of the inner-pupillary border (Pupillary Ruff). Currently released the following books; Time Risk – New Acquisitions in Iridology, The Inner Pupillary Boarder – A multidimensional Approach.
  • Sguario  S. MD – ITALY – Several Iridology Publications
  • Fragnay P. MD – FRANCE – Highly respected for his work in “Iris Chromatherapy”.
  • Ponzo P. ND – FRANCE – Naturopathic Doctor who has made great strides in the field of Iridology and Nutrition.
  • Dailakis M. MD – GREECE – Published excellent monograph clinical study of Heart Diseases and Iridology.